List of European countries checklist: Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere, bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The countries of Europe are those that are located within the geographical boundaries of the continent of Europe.
There are 44 countries in Europe, each with their unique history, culture, and traditions. These countries are Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kosovo, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, and the United Kingdom.
It is worth noting that some countries, such as Russia and Turkey, straddle both Europe and Asia, and as such, they are sometimes referred to as Eurasian countries. However, for the purpose of this list, they are included as countries in Europe due to the majority of their landmass being located within the continent of Europe.
List of European countries and Region
List of European countries checklist: Europe is divided into 44 individual countries, each with its own unique history, culture, and traditions. These countries are typically divided into regions or sub-regions based on factors such as geography, language, culture, and history.-List of European countries checklist
For example, some of the sub-regions within Europe include:
- Western Europe: This sub-region includes countries such as France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. These countries share a common history and are often considered to be some of the wealthiest and most developed nations in the world.
- Central Europe: This sub-region includes countries such as Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia. These countries are typically characterized by their rich cultural heritage and often have a shared history of occupation by outside powers.
- Eastern Europe: This sub-region includes countries such as Belarus, Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine. These countries are typically characterized by their Slavic heritage and have a shared history of occupation by the Soviet Union.
- Baltic States: This sub-region includes countries such as Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. These countries are located in the northern part of Europe and are characterized by their rich cultural heritage and unique linguistic traditions.
- Scandinavia: This sub-region includes countries such as Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. These countries are typically characterized by their Nordic heritage and have a shared history of Viking culture and exploration.
Overall, the division of European countries into sub-regions can help to highlight the unique cultural and historical traditions that are shared by different groups of people across the continent.
How Many Countries Are In Europe?
As mentioned earlier, European countries can be divided into four main geographical areas. Therefore, I have segregated these countries according to their geographical location, de facto countries and territories.
1- Countries In Northern Europe
There are several countries in Northern Europe, including:
2 – Countries In Southern Europe
There are several countries in Southern Europe, including:
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- North Macedonia
- Turkey (partially in Asia)
3 – Countries In Eastern Europe
There are several countries in Eastern Europe, including:
- Czech Republic
- Romania (also partly in Southern Europe)
4 – Countries In Western Europe
There are several countries in Western Europe, including:
- United Kingdom (UK)
5 – Transcontinental Countries In Europe
There are two transcontinental countries in Europe, which means that they are located on both the European continent and Asia:
- Russia – the vast majority of its land area and population are in Asia, but a small portion of its territory, including the cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg, are in Europe.
- Turkey – Most of Turkey’s land area and population are in Asia, but a small portion of its territory, including the city of Istanbul, is in Europe.
6 – De Facto Countries In Europe
There are several de facto countries in Europe, which are territories that have declared independence but are not widely recognized by the international community. They include:
- Kosovo – a disputed territory in the Balkans that declared independence from Serbia in 2008. It is recognized by over 100 UN member states, including the United States and most European countries, but not by Serbia, Russia, or China.
- Transnistria – a breakaway region of Moldova that declared independence in 1990. It is not recognized by any UN member state, but has its own government, military, and currency.
- Abkhazia – a disputed region of Georgia that declared independence in 1999. It is recognized as a sovereign state by a handful of countries, including Russia, Nicaragua, and Venezuela, but not by the United States or most European countries.
- South Ossetia – another disputed region of Georgia that declared independence in 1991. It is recognized as a sovereign state by a few countries, including Russia, Nicaragua, and Syria, but not by the United States or most European countries.
- Nagorno-Karabakh – a disputed territory in the South Caucasus that declared independence from Azerbaijan in 1991. It is recognized as an independent state by a few countries, including Armenia, but not by the United States or most European countries.
7 – Dependencies And Territories In Europe
There are several dependencies and territories in Europe, which are territories that are not fully independent, but are under the jurisdiction of another country. They include:
- Akrotiri and Dhekelia – British overseas territory located on the island of Cyprus.
- Faroe Islands – self-governing territory of Denmark located in the North Atlantic.
- Gibraltar – British overseas territory located on the southern coast of Spain.
- Guernsey – British Crown Dependency located in the English Channel.
- Isle of Man – British Crown Dependency located in the Irish Sea.
- Jan Mayen – unincorporated territory of Norway located in the Arctic Ocean.
- Jersey – British Crown Dependency located in the English Channel.
- Svalbard – archipelago of Norway located in the Arctic Ocean.
- Åland Islands – autonomous territory of Finland located in the Baltic Sea.
- Madeira – autonomous region of Portugal located off the northwest coast of Africa.
- Azores – autonomous region of Portugal located in the mid-Atlantic.
- Canaries – autonomous region of Spain located off the northwest coast of Africa.
- Ceuta – Spanish autonomous city located on the northern coast of Africa.
- Melilla – Spanish autonomous city located on the northern coast of Africa.
Which Are The Nordic Countries?
The Nordic countries are a group of countries in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic that share a common history, culture, and language. They are:
In addition to these five countries, the Nordic region also includes the autonomous territories of:
- Faroe Islands (self-governing territory of Denmark)
- Greenland (self-governing territory of Denmark)
- Åland Islands (autonomous territory of Finland)
Scandinavian Countries list
The Scandinavian countries are a subset of the Nordic countries, and refer specifically to the three kingdoms of:
These countries share a common historical and cultural heritage, and are located on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Some definitions of Scandinavia also include the territories of:
However, these countries are not considered part of the Scandinavian cultural and linguistic region.
Which Are The Schengen Member States Vs European Union?
The Schengen Area is a zone in Europe where border controls have been abolished, allowing for free movement of people within its member states. There is some overlap between the Schengen Area and the European Union, but they are not exactly the same. Here are the member states of each:
The Schengen Area is a group of European countries that have abolished passport and other types of border control at their mutual borders, allowing for the free and unrestricted movement of people between member states. The name comes from the town of Schengen in Luxembourg, where the agreement was signed in 1985.
The Schengen Area currently consists of 26 member states, 22 of which are members of the European Union. The other four are Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein, which are part of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) but not members of the EU. Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania are currently part of the European Union, but are not yet part of the Schengen Area.
The Schengen Agreement provides for common rules on visas, asylum, and other immigration issues. However, individual countries still retain the right to impose temporary border controls in exceptional circumstances, such as for security reasons or to cope with large influxes of migrants.
The Schengen Area is considered one of the most tangible achievements of the European Union, promoting closer ties and a greater sense of unity among member states. It has also been instrumental in promoting tourism and business travel within the region.
- Czech Republic
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 27 member states primarily located in Europe. The EU was established in 1993 by the Maastricht Treaty with the aim of creating a single market for goods and services, promoting economic cooperation and political integration, and improving living standards for its citizens.
The EU is based on a system of shared decision-making among its member states, with the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, and the Court of Justice of the European Union playing key roles in shaping EU policies and legislation. The EU has its own flag, anthem, and currency (the euro), and has developed policies in a wide range of areas, including trade, agriculture, environmental protection, energy, and human rights.
Some of the main achievements of the EU include the establishment of the single market, the adoption of common policies in areas such as the environment and social policy, and the creation of a common foreign and security policy. The EU has also played a key role in promoting democracy and the rule of law in countries seeking to join the union, and has contributed to peace and stability in Europe.
Membership in the EU is voluntary and open to any European country that meets the membership criteria, which include political stability, a functioning market economy, and the ability to adopt EU laws and regulations. The UK, which had been a member since 1973, withdrew from the EU on January 31, 2020.
- Czech Republic
- United Kingdom (until its withdrawal from the EU on January 31, 2020)
Note that not all EU member states are part of the Schengen Area, and not all Schengen Area member states are part of the EU. For example, Switzerland is part of the Schengen Area but not the EU, while Ireland and the United Kingdom are part of the EU but not the Schengen Area.
What Are The Languages Spoken In Europe?
Europe is a diverse continent with a rich linguistic heritage. There are many different languages spoken across Europe, including:
- Germanic languages: German, English, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic.
- Romance languages: French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian.
- Slavic languages: Russian, Polish, Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian.
- Baltic languages: Lithuanian, Latvian.
- Celtic languages: Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh.
In addition to these, there are also many regional and minority languages spoken in different parts of Europe, such as Basque, Catalan, Breton, Corsican, Occitan, Frisian, Sami, Romani, and Yiddish, among others.
The most widely spoken language in Europe is Russian, followed by German, French, English, Italian, Spanish, Polish, and Turkish. However, the distribution of languages varies greatly across the continent, with many countries and regions having their own distinct linguistic traditions and identities.
Best Things I Can Do In Europe?
Europe is a diverse continent with a rich cultural heritage and a wide range of attractions and activities to offer visitors. Here are some of the things you can do in Europe:
- Visit historical landmarks: Europe is home to some of the world’s most famous landmarks, such as the Eiffel Tower, the Colosseum, the Tower of London, and the Acropolis.
- Explore museums and galleries: Europe has a rich cultural heritage, with many world-class museums and galleries, such as the Louvre in Paris, the British Museum in London, and the Prado in Madrid.
- Experience local cuisine: Europe is known for its rich culinary traditions, and each country has its own unique cuisine and specialties. Sample local dishes and try new foods while traveling.
- Enjoy the great outdoors: Europe has a wealth of natural beauty to explore, from the mountains of the Alps and the Pyrenees to the beaches of the Mediterranean and the fjords of Norway.
- Go on a wine tour: Europe is home to some of the world’s best wine regions, such as the Bordeaux region in France, Tuscany in Italy, and the Rioja region in Spain.
- Attend a music or cultural festival: Europe is famous for its music and cultural festivals, such as the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, the Montreux Jazz Festival, and the Oktoberfest in Munich.
- Take a scenic train journey: Europe has some of the world’s most picturesque train routes, such as the Glacier Express in Switzerland, the West Highland Line in Scotland, and the Bergen Railway in Norway.
- Go shopping: Europe is home to some of the world’s most famous shopping destinations, such as the Champs-Élysées in Paris, Oxford Street in London, and the Gran Via in Madrid.
These are just some of the many things you can do in Europe. The possibilities are endless, so explore, discover, and enjoy all that this fascinating continent has to offer.
Europe is a diverse and fascinating continent with a rich history, culture, and natural beauty. It is home to 44 countries, each with its own unique identity and traditions. From the scenic beauty of Norway and the Swiss Alps to the vibrant cities of London, Paris, and Berlin, Europe offers visitors a wealth of experiences and attractions.
Whether you’re interested in history, art, music, food, or outdoor activities, there is something for everyone to enjoy in Europe. The continent is also known for its advanced economies, high living standards, and high quality of life.